A stages approach to the internationalization of higher education? The entry of UK universities into China
This article contributes to understandings of the internationalization of higher education by investigating the extent to which a stages approach is evident in the overseas expansion of universities such that they begin with exports before moving on to contractual arrangements, then joint ventures and finally the establishment of wholly owned subsidiaries. Focusing on the expansion of UK universities into the Chinese market, the findings from 10 case studies reveal that universities do not follow a uniform market entry pattern. Moreover, evidence suggests that access to high-level personal networks in China determines the development of high commitment entry modes.
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