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On the animalian values of the human spirit: the foundational role of affect in psychotherapy and the evolution of consciousness

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This essay summarizes recent conceptual and empirical advances in understanding basic emotional systems of the mammalian brain and implications for understanding the nature of affective feelings in humans and other animals. Some implications of this knowledge for therapeutic practice are discussed, especially with regard to childhood disorders such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.

Keywords: ADHD; affect; autism; brain; emotions; methylphenidate; naltrexone; psychopathologies

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: J.P. Scott Center For Neuroscience, Mind and Behavior, Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA,

Publication date: September 1, 2002

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