Educational Orientation and Upward Influence: An Examination of Students' Conversations about Disappointing Grades
The influence of student attitudes toward learning and grades on their communication with instructors about grades has received limited attention despite its potential implications for learning, performance outcomes, and student–teacher interactions. Participants (N=194) who discussed
a disappointing grade with an instructor completed measures of their educational orientations and upward influence choices during the grade conversation. Learning/grade orientation related to the use of explicit and manipulative upward influence tactics, most often in opposite directions.
Learning/grade orientation did not interact to influence students' upward influence choices during grade conversations. The study limitations, implications, and directions for future research are discussed.