The Profound Sound of Ernest Hemingway's Typist: Gendered Typewriting as a Solution to the Problems of Communication
Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the association between women and typewriters first generated and then ameliorated anxieties over the potential unfaithfulness of the writing technology. Typing techniques designed to minimize miscommunication developed in response to fears of and frustrations with the machine. Gendered typewriting reconciled a perception of the typewriter as a powerful means of expression with the desire for a trustworthy mode of communication. Through an examination of literature and typing tutorials, this article shows gender's regulatory function in the pursuit of clear, reliable, and faithful communication processes, suggesting that gender functions primarily as solution to, rather than as a problem for, communication.