Do female researchers face a glass ceiling in France? A hazard model of promotions
The present article examines whether French female researchers face a glass ceiling, an invisible barrier to promotion. Using an original database from the National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), we estimate duration models for promotions. The methodology used allows us to take into account censored observations and unobserved heterogeneity. Our results show a significant gender effect that does not contradict the glass-ceiling hypothesis. In addition, factors that boost promotion seem to be radically different according to gender and we present evidence that promotion strategies are different for males and females.
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