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Glass ceiling and double disadvantage effects: women in the US labour market

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Gender pay issues in the US labour market are examined using 1990 and 2000 US Census data for three groups: the native born, immigrants from English-speaking countries and immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. Quantile regression estimates reveal different patterns of wage effects across the wage distribution. Females have lower rates of pay across the entire wage scale. There is minimal evidence of glass ceiling effects. Immigrant women from non-English-speaking countries are argued to experience a double disadvantage effect.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Business School, Mail Bag M251, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia

Publication date: February 1, 2010

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