Non-stationarity and the import demand for virgin olive oil in the European Union
The aim of this study is to analyse the importation of virgin olive oil to European Union countries, paying special attention to the Spanish export contribution. The method used is based on the estimation of an imports demand system. The novelty of the paper lies not in the modelling approach but in the explicit consideration of the univariate characteristics of series that is included in the analysis. Since prices are non-stationary, cointegration among them has been tested. Results indicate that they are cointegrated and that homogeneity holds. As a result, relative prices are included in the imports demand system. Structural change is also considered so as to account for the entrance of both Spain and Greece into the EU during the period studied. Results demonstrate the leadership of Spain within the EU virgin olive oil market as well as the increasing competitiveness of Greek oil.