Foreign direct investment and growth in India: a cointegration approach
The two-way link between foreign direct investment and growth for India is explored using a structural cointegration model with vector error correction mechanism. The existence of two cointegrating vectors between GDP, FDI, the unit labour cost and the share of import duty in tax revenue is found, which captures the long run relationship between FDI and GDP. A parsimonious vector error correction model (VECM) is then estimated to find the short run dynamics of FDI and growth. Our VECM model reveals three important features: (a) GDP in India is not Granger caused by FDI; the causality runs more from GDP to FDI; (b) trade liberalization policy of the Indian government had some positive short run impact on the FDI flow; and (c) FDI tends to lower the unit labour cost suggesting that FDI in India is labour displacing.