Thedouble-negativeeffect onthe earnings of foreign-born females in Canada
This paper contributes to the debate over immigrant 'quality' by examining whether or not a double-negative effect on the earnings of female immigrants exists in Canada. Contrary to popular belief, this study observes that labour market adjustments occur at a faster rate for female immigrants than for male immigrants. The results indicate that immigrant women in Canada suffer from a double-negative effect mainly because of gender earnings discrimination rather than birthplace discrimination. Earnings discrimination by birthplace is more pronounced among males than females. The findings suggest that in evaluating immigrant quality, researchers should take into account the potential role of labour market discrimination.