The demand for English league football: a club-level analysis
A demand equation is estimated for 19 large urban-based English Football League clubs over the period 1962/3 to 1991/2, in order to analyse the economic determinants of club attendances while controlling for football-specific factors. Attendances are measured with and without correction for admission of season-ticket holders. Using an error-correction specification to model attendances, it is shown that both adjusted and unadjusted attendances respond to real ticket prices in the long-run, in 17 and 18 clubs, respectively. The price-elasticity is typically larger for adjusted attendances, suggesting that 'casual' spectators are more price-sensitive than season-ticket holders. Among football-specific factors, league position, goals scored and promotion and relegation between the divisions are all important determinants of attendance patterns.