Reconstructing the Interagency Process after Iraq 1
Cultural, structural and bureaucratic barriers between the Department of State and the Department of Defense prevented effective integration, particularly in the postwar planning phase of Operation 'Iraqi Freedom'. In contrast, the postwar planning in Kosovo, under the PDD 56 interagency coordination process, could have served as a useful template for the political-military planning process to produce a unified political-military plan. Unfortunately, the corporate knowledge contained in PDD 56 did not seem to transfer between administrations. Iraq demonstrated that partial State-Defense integration, which occurred primarily at the highest levels, was insufficient for an undertaking of this magnitude. Many challenges still exist to integrate two diverse executive departments.