This work adds to the brand orientation literature by showing that while brand strategies may sometimes be aspirational, multiple identities exist which may either challenge or support a brand. In this place branding study, in-depth interviews of local residents reveal the existence
of multiple place identities as well as how these identities relate to a place brand strategy. A framework is provided which illustrates how longitudinal identity studies can be a useful way to assess changes to place identities and the internal effectiveness of brand implementation. It is
proposed that the functional communication-based research approach together with the novel framework developed in this study has relevance to the brand orientation of corporations, as it does for places.