The addition of kiosks (e.g. pushcarts, stalls, etc.) to malls has changed the mall environment. However, no research to our knowledge has been conducted to determine if that change has been received positively or negatively by shoppers. Our study investigates how kiosks and kiosk salespeople
affect consumers' emotional responses and shopping behaviours towards the mall. Using a between-subjects design, we found that the very presence of kiosks negatively affects shoppers' perceptions of the mall environment. Whether a kiosk salesperson was aggressive or passive had virtually the
same effect upon shoppers. Similarly, passive kiosk salespeople and the absence of kiosks resulted in relatively the same level of arousal on shoppers, while aggressive salespeople caused a higher level of arousal than either of the other two conditions. This contributes to the extant literature
on retail atmospherics and perceptions of retail salesperson behaviours.