Mastering the Marketing Communications Mix: Micro and Macro Perspectives on Integrated Marketing Communication Programs
One difficult challenge for marketers is the large, diverse means of communication and communication options that are available to support their brands (e.g. TV, print, and interactive advertising; trade and consumer promotions; arts, sports, and cause sponsorships; etc.). Consequently, marketers must understand what various marketing communication options have to offer and how they should be combined to optimize their marketing communications programs. Towards that goal, this paper considers issues in how to develop, implement, and evaluate an integrated marketing communication program. Specifically, to provide micro perspectives -- especially relevant for academic research -- we introduce the Marketing Communication Tetrahedron as a means of classifying and analyzing factors influencing marketing communication effectiveness along four broad dimensions (i.e. factors related to the consumer, communication, response, and situation). To provide macro perspectives -- especially relevant for managerial planning -- we provide criteria as to how integrated marketing communication programs can be designed and evaluated as a whole (i.e. according to coverage, contribution, commonality, complementarity, robustness, and cost considerations). We also describe how the two perspectives relate and conclude by discussing theoretical and managerial implications and outlining future research directions.