Balancing Internal and External Market Orientations
In his 'Marketing Myopia', Levitt (1960), argued against the product centred view of the firm and for the marketing view of the firm, suggesting that businesses must be viewed as customer satisfying processes. This view has endured for nearly forty years, despite changes in the service requirements of today's markets. In the current market environment such a narrow focus on customers' satisfaction is increasingly being challenged and Gummesson (1998) suggests that it is just another type of marketing myopia. This article reviews the contributions of relationship marketing, market orientation and internal marketing and incorporates some current strategic management themes. An internal orientation suitable for today's service firms is developed. A conceptual model is presented which balances an internal market orientation and an external market orientation and directions for future research into this concept are discussed.