Acceptance of Recycling Appeals: The Moderating Role of Perceived Consumer Effectiveness
This study tests the effectiveness of positively and negatively framed messages as a function of consumers' confidence in their ability to improve the environment, or "perceived consumer effectiveness" (PCE). High-PCE consumers are shown to be more receptive to negatively framed messages than those who are low in PCE. This is seen in their stronger belief in the claims made in negatively framed messages and more favourable message attitudes. Implications are discussed for a variety of environmental and social causes for which negative framing may help to communicate the adverse consequences of failure to change behaviour.