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Responsibilities of Second Chambers: Constitutional and Human Rights Safeguards

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Second chambers - even those which are otherwise weak - are often given particular responsibility for protecting the constitution. This responsibility flows naturally from both of the original models of second chambers - as either conservative or federal houses. This study discusses the constitutional and human rights roles of second chambers in seven Western democracies. The chambers selected are intended to represent a spectrum of different models, and a range from effective to ineffective upper houses. The countries considered are Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy and Spain.
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Keywords: bicameralism; conservatism; constitutional protection; human rights; second chambers

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 2001-03-01

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