The objective of this study was to gain knowledge about anemia is it relates to program planning. No recent data exist on anemia [hemoglobin (Hb)<120g/L, plasma ferritin (PF) normal], Fe deficiency (ID) [PF<15microg/L, Hb normal], or Fe deficiency anemia [Hb<120g/L, PF<15microg/L] in Lebanese women. A national survey of 540 nonpregnant women aged 15–49 years was conducted to find the prevalence and determinants of anemia and ID in Lebanon. Sociodemographic, health, and dietary data were collected. Hb and ferritin were assessed. Thirty-three percent of the subjects had ID and 13.5 per cent had Fe deficiency anemia. Eight percent were anemic (Hb<120g/L) with PF values>15microg/L. Women consuming<67 per cent of the RDA of hematinic nutrients had lower Hb and Fe levels. Strategies to improve Fe and anemia status are discussed.