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The role of defense in national innovation systems is highly topical, because of the complexity of defense systems and the desire to get value‐for‐money from R&D investment, especially through the commercialization of defense‐funded technology. In practice, external transfer has proved to be a difficult, labor‐intensive process, which requires a strong commitment from both parties. Here, intellectual property rights (IPR) appear as a strong incentive for collaboration. Analyzing the lack of IPR culture in defense industries elucidates the difficulties and failures in spin‐off attempts. We finally propose strategies leading to a market for defense‐born technology.

Keywords: Collaboration; Defense technology; Dual use; Intellectual property rights; Technology transfer; Transaction costs

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: École Spéciale Militaire de Saint Cyr Coëtquidan, France 2: IMRI, Université Paris Dauphine, Place du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France

Publication date: June 1, 2006

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