Universities as key knowledge infrastructures in regional innovation systems
There are different dimensions to the role played by universities in regional innovation. One perspective is to examine the different forms of knowledge and knowledge transfer in the form of commodified knowledge, human capital and social capital. A second perspective is to look at different governance and policy contexts and consider national systems of higher education, national programmes for regional innovation as well as regionally specific interactions. Examples of university engagement in Europe across these different scales are presented. Overall, there is a need for integration and joining up of policies at the regional scale.