Deregulation and Liberalization of European Air Transport Markets
This paper is concerned with the remaining limitations to full interoperability within the European Union (EU) air transport market. Twenty years ago the European air transport network was fragmented, with airlines being treated as public entities designed to serve largely national interests. Considerable progress has been made in recent years, notably the three 'Packages' of EU legislation, to remove such barriers. The situation still differs in several ways from the almost totally free market that has been in place in the USA since the 1980s but, within the EU, fares and market entry are independent of national frontiers. Some barriers remain, largely legacy effects that are gradually being tidied up, but with some significant matters concerning routes outside of the EU and capacity constraints relating to the still largely publicly provided infrastructure still needing resolution.