Why the shift from kokubô (national defense) to anzen hoshô (security)? A study of the basic issues surrounding Japan's security
The Japanese term anzen hoshô is usually translated into English as "'security," but its literal meaning is "the securing of safety." While this term means many things, in order to understand its true meaning, we must first take a fresh look at another term, kokubô or "national defense," the idea that only when the safety of the nation has been secured can the personal safety and freedom of the individual be guaranteed. In this article, Professor Seizaburo Sato, former Director of Research at the Institute for International Policy Studies, argues that the reasons for the existence of the military capabilities of the advanced democracies must be reexamined to enable an expansion of the debate on Japan's security.