This research is part of an integrated study investigating the Cainozoic development of the Proteaceae in south-western Australia and this study documents the pollen and geochemical record from Two Mile Lake, south-western Australia, to determine the environment of this area during the late Quaternary. The vegetation record from Two Mile Lake is consistently dominated by Casuarina and Chenopodiaceae species, with a variety of other pollen types. Geochemical analysis indicates that the environment was low in magnetic minerals, organics, carbonates, nitrogen and phosphorus. Geochemical and palynological results indicate that the vegetation and environment of south-western Australia were unresponsive and/or unaffected by climatic changes of the early Holocene. The sedimentation rates are unclear and represent an important constraint to this study. It is possible that there was either rapid sedimentation in this area during the early Holocene and/or a lack of environmental change as a result of complex environmental processes.