Eleven new chromosome counts in 10 Turkish endemic Centaurea species in section Phalolepis are reported. The prevalence of the basic chromosome number of x = 9, together with a close correlation between karyological data and classification of the eastern sections of the Jacea group, is confirmed. According to our counts, polyploidy, and especially tetraploidy, occurs in Phalolepis section and seems to be an important factor for diversification in this section of the genus Centaurea.
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