The impact of different directed forgetting instructions on implicit and explicit memory: New evidence from a modified process dissociation procedure
Abstract:In contrast to previous research on directed forgetting, the present studies adopted a recent modification of the process dissociation procedure (Jacoby, 1991; Richardson-Klavehn & Gardiner, 1995) to accommodate the cross-contamination of memory test performance by implicit and explicit memorial factors. In Experiment 1, 120 subjects were compared in global directed forgetting, item-by-item directed forgetting, and control conditions on estimates of voluntary conscious memory, involuntary conscious memory, and involuntary unconscious memory performance. In Experiment 2, 80 subjects were compared in specific directed forgetting and control conditions on estimates of voluntary conscious memory, involuntary conscious memory, and involuntary unconscious memory performance. Subjects showed significant decrements in voluntary and involuntary conscious memory performance following instructions for directed forgetting in all conditions. None of the directed forgetting conditions showed a decrement in involuntary unconscious memory performance. Results suggest that, regardless of instruction type, directed forgetting prevents the conscious expression of memorial information (both voluntary and involuntary) while leaving unconscious memory intact.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Institute of Neurology, London, UK
Publication date: January 1, 2003