Information and action in punching a falling ball
Authors: Michaels, Claire F.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.
Source: The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, 1 February 2001, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 69-93(25)
Abstract:Lee, Young, Reddish, Lough, and Clayton (1983) reported that the timing control of jumping and vertically punching a dropping ball exploits the inverse of the rate of change of optical expansion, (r). We raise a number of methodological and logical criticisms against their experiment and conclusions and attempt to rectify them by examining elbow joint angles only,in seated punchers, under both monocular and binocular conditions, with two ball sizes, dropped from two heights. Differences between the binocular and monocular cases suggest the exploitation of different information. We present several techniques to help determine the operative variable(s) controlling the action. The optical variable used to initiate and guide flexion appeared to be expansion velocity (looming), rather than (r); extension appeared to be under the control of different variables in the monocular and binocular cases. Simulations using single variables and single perceptuo-motor intervals were of mixed success.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands