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Is Smoking Related to Body Image Satisfaction, Stress, and Self-esteem in Young Adults?

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Objectives: To examine the association of smoking and gender with body image satisfaction, perceived stress, and self-esteem in young adults. Methods: Respondents completed a survey consisting of Perceived Stress Scale, Body-Areas Satisfaction Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Current smokers (n = 483) and never smokers (n = 973) are included. Results: Smoking and female gender were independently associated with higher perceived stress (P < 0.001). Female gender was associated with lower body image satisfaction and lower self-esteem (P < 0.001). Current smoking was associated with lower self-esteem (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Smoking treatment should include stress management and self-esteem and body image improvement.

Keywords: body image satisfaction; self-esteem; smoking; stress; young adults

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Nicotine Dependence Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 2: Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 3: Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 4: Section of Patient Education, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 5: Department of Psychology, Winona State University, Winona, MN 6: Department of Psychology, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN

Publication date: May 1, 2006

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  • The American Journal of Health Behavior seeks to improve the quality of life through multidisciplinary health efforts in fostering a better understanding of the multidimensional nature of both individuals and social systems as they relate to health behaviors.

    The Journal aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the impact of personal attributes, personality characteristics, behavior patterns, social structure, and processes on health maintenance, health restoration, and health improvement; to disseminate knowledge of holistic, multidisciplinary approaches to designing and implementing effective health programs; and to showcase health behavior analysis skills that have been proven to affect health improvement and recovery.

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