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Psychosocial Predictors of Increased Smoking Stage Among Sixth Graders

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Objectives: To identify predictors of increases in smoking stage among sixth graders. Methods: At the beginning and end of sixth grade, 973 students completed surveys. Multivariate, partial proportional odds analyses were conducted. Results: Time 1 intenders were 4 times more likely than never users to smoke at Time 2. In adjusted analyses, female sex, white race, peers, and perceived prevalence were positively associated with an increase in smoking stage, and social competence, parental expectations, and parental monitoring were negatively associated with an increase in smoking stage. Conclusions: Early adolescent smoking advanced in stages; intent predicted initiation; peer and parent influences were independently associated with increases in smoking stage.

Keywords: adolescence; attitudes; parent-child relations; substance use

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Prevention Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Rockville, MD. 2: Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Rockville, MD.

Publication date: November 1, 2003

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  • The American Journal of Health Behavior seeks to improve the quality of life through multidisciplinary health efforts in fostering a better understanding of the multidimensional nature of both individuals and social systems as they relate to health behaviors.

    The Journal aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the impact of personal attributes, personality characteristics, behavior patterns, social structure, and processes on health maintenance, health restoration, and health improvement; to disseminate knowledge of holistic, multidisciplinary approaches to designing and implementing effective health programs; and to showcase health behavior analysis skills that have been proven to affect health improvement and recovery.

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