The moment of conception is the undeniable beginning of all deliberations on human life as the supreme good that conditions the utilization of other goods. Human life, no matter how explained and justified, is unanimously regarded as the value of values. Human birth is the natural entry into the social and natural environment just as inevitable human death is also a natural way out. Man's biological nature alone determines, by conception, birth and death, the objective boundaries of deliberations on his life. The uniqueness of human life consists in the entwinning of man's biological nature and rational nature, and of the two with social nature. One-sided descriptions of human nature led to the formulation of one-sided paradigms that did not show all its sides: biologism, naturalism, evolutionism, rationalism, culturalism, sociologism, psychologism, legalism etc. The interconnections of all sides of human nature are manifested more fully when its descriptions are subjected to evolution and regulation in particular normative systems. The experience of all history of humankind demonstrates that different sides of human nature can be permeated both by good and evil. Good, unlike evil, does not require any normative regulation. Evil, which hurts the Body with pain, can arouse evil in human rationality witch in turn provokes evil in man's social interactions. Other directions of evil penetration are also possible. Conceived in the rational or social layer of human nature, evil can affect its bodily side. Normative systems aim at preventing evils resulting from different sides of human nature or at least at minimizing their effects. Descriptions, evaluations and norms concerning different aspects of human nature are the object of cognition consolidated through scientific knowledge. The vast knowledge of man forces narrow specialization wherein fragments of the particular sides of the rich and interesting human nature can be known. Scientific specialization hampers a comprehensive and coherent description of human nature. There is therefore considerable truth in the words of Edgar Morin, a well-known French philosopher, that the last continent not yet explored by man is man himself. The comprehensive and coherent cognition of human nature is hindered by rapid development of technology, which interferes in the life of man situated in the life of the natural environment. Scientific knowledge and resultant technology raise both great expectations and just as great fears. This is particularly evident in the development of human nature and the natural environment.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2007
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Values and Norms in the Age of Globalization The authors of this book, scholars from Germany, Austria, the United States, Kirghizia and Poland, seek an answer to the challenges posed to social sciences by the globalization epoch. The challenges apply to such problems as the establishment of rights and rules and institutions governing the existence of supra- and international communities, the development of a common system of ethical values, moral standards and norms (or even the creation of a system of entirely new values, standards and norms) supporting the unification process, as well as the legitimacy and validity of transferring the values and standards and the models of economy and politics characteristic of European culture to other cultures and civilizations. This book raises the questions that are particularly significant to the present-day political practice in its European and global dimensions: the questions of place, role and dimension, as well as topicality or transformations in the post-modern order of the world, of such moral values, standards and norms present in politics as human rights, freedom, justice, responsibility, solidarity, tolerance, forgiveness, peace, security, education, modernization or democracy and law.