Schooling and Education for Globalizazion: Prescriptive Experimentation of Education Change
This book is about Singapore's experimentation with the risks and uncertainties of globalization. As with experiments and experimentation, there are many pathways to go about “testing” and finding “solutions” to a problem. While the nature of experiment and experimentation is such that there is no guarantee of success, even if there is, there could be unintended consequences or failures, the argument presented in this book is that Singapore's experimentation with globalization is performed with calculation what I call “tactics” and “tactical globalization” to work with the benefits that globalization brings and against the risks and dangers of globalization.
Beginning this chapter, the focus is on schooling and education as the site of experimentation, and education policy as a tool for harnessing the experiment. Because schools are disciplinary institutions where behaviors, dispositions, ethics are regulated, cultivated and shaped, experimentation with the cultivation of the kind of subjectivities an education system works to produce is one “calculated” way of preparing young generation of Singaporeans for the new globalized economy.
Contradictory as it may sound, Singapore's experimentation with schooling and education for globalization can be described as “prescriptive experimentation”. This is because in Singapore, the way education policy is formulated and implemented has always been top-down and uncontested. There is an uncompromising, authoritative and mandating aspect to education policy-making where policy articulation carries with it disciplinary effects for subject formation and the economy. In this chapter, I attempt to study the “prescriptive experimentation” of the working of education policy in constituting education change in Singapore. It would be far too ambitious, however, to detail every single education policy that has contributed to Singapore's education landscape in a chapter. Hence, I narrow the focus to the Thinking Schools, Learning Nation (TSLN) policy implemented in 1997 and a few other significant education changes that follow on after the TSLN policy implementation.
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Globlization, Sport and Corporate Nationalism
This book examines the profound impact of globalization on the national sport of rugby and New Zealand's iconic team, the All Blacks. Since 1995, the national sport of rugby has undergone significant change, most notably due to the New Zealand Rugby Union's lucrative and ongoing corporate partnerships with Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation and global sportswear giant Adidas. The authors explore these significant developments and pressures alongside the resulting tensions and contradictions that have emerged as the All Blacks, and other aspects of national heritage and indigenous identity, have been steadily incorporated into a global promotional culture. Following recent research in cultural studies, they highlight the intensive, but contested, commodification of the All Blacks to illuminate the ongoing transformation of rugby in New Zealand by corporate imperatives and the imaginations of marketers, most notably through the production of a complex discourse of corporate nationalism within Adidas's evolving local and global advertising campaigns.
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