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In his essay ‘Scapeland’, Jean-François Lyotard provocatively defines landscape as that which exceeds the sense of order imposed by perspective or by any system of knowledge and description. Dismissing the idea that it might be consoling, he insists that an encounter with landscape is fundamentally disorienting. According to Lyotard, landscape is a ‘borderland’, in which ‘matter offers itself up in a raw state before being tamed’ (Lyotard 1991: 186). Describing this borderland as an excess of presence, he claims that in our meetings with landscape ‘you do not associate. No more synthesis […] You pray to heaven, to provide for you in your wretchedness. The wretchedness of a soul rubbed raw by the tide-race of matter’ (ibid.). Landscape is conveyed as a space where the limits and walls that would render it knowable and navigable are breached. It is the instance (Lyotard's concept of landscape is configured in spatial and temporal terms) when matter cannot be cohered as form and the resulting effect is the ‘deflagration of the mind’ (ibid.: 185). The fact that landscape remains ‘beyond the realm of form’, he writes, leaves ‘the mind DESOLATE’ (ibid.: 186). This desolation is founded on the fact that landscape interrupts any attempt to make the encounter coherent as narrative. Here, landscape's capacity to seize and displace readable notions of space and time debilitate the processes that create and shore up subjectivity. The self, Lyotard writes, ‘is left behind’. Interestingly, Lyotard avoids equating landscape with the natural or nature, preferring to locate its destabilising potential in the act of encountering, rather than in an abstract assertion of some inert pervading reality that might reside in the materiality of things. According to Lyotard, the desolation of the mind occurs in the movement between what is known and what is being experienced outside the realm of knowledge – in the clash that occurs when a mind that presumes to know meets a materiality that is untainted by the pre-inscribed orders of meaning that are imposed by all signifying systems. In this sense, landscape provokes a mental stutter, in which the process of making intelligible is interrupted. Lyotard reminds us, however, that the mind's ‘desolation’ initiated by landscape is only temporary, imposed in the instance of the encounter and then superseded by the cognitive drive to render experience explicable. Yet, he observes, we carry a memory of the shock that the encounter produces, one that always has the capacity to disorientate in a future contemplation.
Performing Nature The essays in this volume explore the borderland between ecology and the arts. Informed by psychoanalysis and cultural materialism, contributors to the first part, 'Spectacle: Landscape and Subjectivity', look at ways in which particular social and scientific experiments, theatre and film productions and photography either reinforce or contest our ideas about nature and human-human or human-animal relations and identities. The second part, 'World: Hermeneutic Language and Social Ecology', investigates political protest, social practice art, acoustic ecology, dance theatre, family therapy and ritual in terms of social philosophy. Contributors to the third part, 'Environment: Immersiveness and Interactivity', explore architecture and sculpture, site-specific and mediatised dance and paratheatre through radical theories of urban and virtual space and time, or else phenomenological philosophy. The final part, 'Void: Death, Life and the Sublime', indicates the possibilities in dance, architecture and animal behaviour of a shift to an existential ontology in which nature has 'the capacity to perform itself'.