Innovative virtual reality measurements for embryonic growth and development
Authors: Verwoerd-Dikkeboom, C.M.; Koning, A.H.J.; Hop, W.C.; van der Spek, P.J.; Exalto, N.; Steegers, E.A.P.
Source: Human Reproduction, Volume 25, Number 6, 8 June 2010 , pp. 1404-1410(7)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Abstract:BACKGROUNDInnovative imaging techniques, using up-to-date ultrasonic equipment, necessitate specific biometry. The aim of our study was to test the possibility of detailed human embryonic biometry using a virtual reality (VR) technique.METHODSIn a longitudinal study, three-dimensional (3D) measurements were performed from 6 to 14 weeks gestational age in 32 pregnancies (n 16 spontaneous conception, n 16 IVF/ICSI). A total of 125 3D volumes were analysed in the I-Space VR system, which allows binocular depth perception, providing a realistic 3D illusion. Crown-rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (BPD), occipito-frontal diameter (OFD), head circumference (HC) and abdominal circumference (AC) were measured as well as arm length, shoulder width, elbow width, hip width and knee width.RESULTSCRL, BPD, OFD and HC could be measured in more than 96 of patients, and AC in 78. Shoulder width, elbow width, hip width and knee width could be measured in more than 95 of cases, and arm length in 82 of cases. Growth curves were constructed for all variables. Ear and foot measurements were only possible beyond 9 weeks gestation.CONCLUSIONSThis study provides a detailed, longitudinal description of normal human embryonic growth, facilitated by a VR system. Growth curves were created for embryonic biometry of the CRL, BPD, HC and AC early in pregnancy and also of several new biometric measurements. Applying virtual embryoscopy will enable us to diagnose growth and/or developmental delay earlier and more accurately. This is especially important for pregnancies at risk of severe complications, such as recurrent late miscarriage and early growth restriction.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 2010-06-08
- Human Reproduction features full-length, peer-reviewed papers reporting original research, clinical case histories, as well as opinions and debates on topical issues. Papers published cover the scientific and medical aspects of reproductive physiology and pathology, endocrinology, andrology, gonad function, gametogenesis, fertilization, embryo development, implantation, pregnancy, genetics, genetic diagnosis, oncology, infectious disease, surgery, contraception, infertility treatment, psychology, ethics and social issues. The highest scientific and editorial standard is maintained throughout the journal along with a rapid rate of publication.