Endometrial expression of immunomodulatory cytokines and their regulators during early pregnancy in bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata)
Authors: Rosario, Gracy X.; Sachdeva, Geetanjali; Manjramkar, Dhananjay D.; Modi, Deepak N.; Meherji, Pervin K.; Puri, Cher P.
Source: Human Reproduction, Volume 20, Number 11, November 2005 , pp. 3039-3046(8)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Abstract:BACKGROUND: It is well established that endometrium undergoes extensive histological changes during implantation and subsequent stages of pregnancy in rodents as well as primates. Our previous investigation using a non-human primate model has demonstrated that morphological alterations are initiated even before the embryo invades the endometrium. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the embryo-induced morphological changes are accompanied by any alteration in the protein levels of the immunomodulatory cytokines and their regulators in the preimplantation stage endometrium. METHODS: The endometrial expression of immunosuppressive factors such as transforming growth factor 2 (TGF2), glycodelin (PP14), leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were analysed on day 6 post-ovulation in pregnant and non-pregnant bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) using immunohistochemical methods. RESULTS: The endometrial expression of TGF2, TGF2 receptor, PP14 and IL-6 were significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) in pregnant animals as compared to non-pregnant animals, whereas the expression of LIF and its receptor remained unaltered in pregnant animals. CONCLUSIONS: Expression levels of some immunomodulatory cytokines in endometrium are significantly increased even before the embryo invades the endometrium. The altered cytokine expression profile in endometrium probably contributes towards generating a conducive environment for the embryo survival, growth and development in the uterus.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2005-11-01
- Human Reproduction features full-length, peer-reviewed papers reporting original research, clinical case histories, as well as opinions and debates on topical issues. Papers published cover the scientific and medical aspects of reproductive physiology and pathology, endocrinology, andrology, gonad function, gametogenesis, fertilization, embryo development, implantation, pregnancy, genetics, genetic diagnosis, oncology, infectious disease, surgery, contraception, infertility treatment, psychology, ethics and social issues. The highest scientific and editorial standard is maintained throughout the journal along with a rapid rate of publication.