The impact of cigarette smoking on zona pellucida thickness of oocytes and embryos prior to transfer into the uterine cavity
Source: Human Reproduction, Volume 19, Number 1, January 2004 , pp. 157-159(3)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Smoking has been reported to promote infertility. The zona pellucida plays an important role in fertilization and implantation. We report, for the first time, the effect of cigarette smoking on zona pellucida thickness of oocytes and embryos as one of the factors that may interfere with fertility. METHODS: This study comprised 169 women, grouped according to their smoking habits: 31 active smokers, whose husbands do not smoke; 44 active smokers, whose husbands smoke; 65 passive smokers, because of smoking husbands and 29 non-smokers (women and husbands). Zona pellucida thickness was measured prospectively on printed photos of 903 oocytes and 456 embryos. RESULTS: The zona pellucida thickness of oocytes and embryos of non-smoking women was significantly thinner than those of active and passive smokers. However, no significant differences were observed in the natural ability of the zona pellucida to become thinner after 48 h in culture. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that active and passive cigarette smoking increases the zona pellucida thickness of oocytes and embryos. Our findings also show that active and passive smoking has no significant effect on the thinning mechanism of the zona pellucida, which implies that it is independent of the initial zona pellucida thickness.
Document Type: Research article
Affiliations: 1: IVF Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Carmel Medical Center, 7 Michal St., Haifa 34362 and 2: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel
Publication date: 2004-01-01
- Human Reproduction features full-length, peer-reviewed papers reporting original research, clinical case histories, as well as opinions and debates on topical issues. Papers published cover the scientific and medical aspects of reproductive physiology and pathology, endocrinology, andrology, gonad function, gametogenesis, fertilization, embryo development, implantation, pregnancy, genetics, genetic diagnosis, oncology, infectious disease, surgery, contraception, infertility treatment, psychology, ethics and social issues. The highest scientific and editorial standard is maintained throughout the journal along with a rapid rate of publication.