Fertilization and early embryology. Comparison of the effects of controlled-rate cryopreservation and vitrification on 2-cell mouse embryos and their subsequent development
Source: Human Reproduction, Volume 14, Number 11, November 1999 , pp. 2827-2832(6)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Abstract:Effects of two cryopreservation procedures (conventional slow controlled-rate freezing using a programmable freezer and vitrification by direct plunging into liquid nitrogen) were compared on 2-cell embryos and their subsequent development to blastocysts, fresh or cryopreserved 2-cell mouse embryos were developed into blastocysts in vitro. The percentage of vitrified embryos which developed into blastocysts was significantly lower than that of fresh and slow controlled-rate frozen embryos. Although blastocysts from each cryopreservation procedure appeared morphologically normal and neither number of cells in the blastocysts nor in-vitro trophoblast spreading differed significantly, there were significant differences in their functional viability. First, the glucose incorporation activity in terms of [3H]2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake in vitrified and thawed 2-cell embryos significantly decreased compared with fresh or slow controlled-rate frozen and thawed 2-cell embryos. Second, 2-DG uptake by blastocysts developed in vitro from fresh 2-cell embryos and from slow controlled-rate frozen or vitrified 2-cell embryos was 105 ± 75, 43.0 ± 28.3 and 22.0 ± 11.4 fmol/embryo/h respectively. Third, the implantation rate of blastocysts developed in vitro from vitrified 2-cell embryos (10.2%) was significantly lower than that from fresh 2-cell embryos (30.8%) or slow controlled-rate frozen 2-cell embryos (22.1%). Since these data suggest that cryopreservation may have ulterior consequences on the functional development of embryos and that vitrification may exert a more harmful effect than slow controlled-rate freezing, more attention should be paid to its safety before vitrification is used routinely in a clinical programme.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 1999-11-01
- Human Reproduction features full-length, peer-reviewed papers reporting original research, clinical case histories, as well as opinions and debates on topical issues. Papers published cover the scientific and medical aspects of reproductive physiology and pathology, endocrinology, andrology, gonad function, gametogenesis, fertilization, embryo development, implantation, pregnancy, genetics, genetic diagnosis, oncology, infectious disease, surgery, contraception, infertility treatment, psychology, ethics and social issues. The highest scientific and editorial standard is maintained throughout the journal along with a rapid rate of publication.