Evidence that male smoking affects the likelihood of a pregnancy following IVF treatment: application of the modified cumulative embryo score
Source: Human Reproduction, Volume 13, Number 6, June 1998 , pp. 1506-1513(8)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Abstract:Female cigarette smoking has been implicated as having a detrimental effect on in-vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes mediated through: (i) a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), and (ii) an elevated pregnancy loss. Research is sparse regarding the effect of male smoking. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of male and female smoking on: (i) the collective quality of embryos selected for uterine transfer, and (ii) the likelihood of achieving an ongoing pregnancy at 12 weeks. A total of 498 consecutive IVF treatment cycles were analysed. Female smokers were significantly younger (P < 0.05) and achieved a better modified cumulative embryo score (mCES) (P < 0.05) than female non-smokers. Female age correlated inversely with the number of oocytes collected (r = -0.42, P < 0.01) and the number of oocytes in turn was important in terms of predicting mCES. The decreasing number of oocytes aspirated with increasing age was of a significantly stronger magnitude for female smokers than for female non-smokers (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether smoking affected the likelihood of achieving a 12-week pregnancy. The mCES, tubal infertility and male smoking were found to be significant. Male smoking interacted with male age (P = 0.0164), indicating for male smokers a decrease of 2.4% in the likelihood of achieving a 12-week pregnancy with every 1-year increase in age. This is the first study to show that male smoking has a deleterious effect on pregnancy outcome among IVF patients. Our study supports the increased risk of DOR but fails to support the elevated incidence of pregnancy loss among female smokers. A reduced pregnancy rate was associated with male smoking possibly through pre-zygotic damage. The growing realization of a paternal component of reproductive impairment suggests that studying the male is necessary.Keywords:embryo quality/IVF/mutagenicity/pregnancy loss/smoking
Document Type: Research article
Affiliations: 1: PIVET Medical Centre, Cambridge Street, Leederville (Perth), Western Australia 6007 2: Curtin University of Technology, Western Australia, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Kent Street, Bentley (Perth), Western Australia 6102
Publication date: 1998-06-01
- Human Reproduction features full-length, peer-reviewed papers reporting original research, clinical case histories, as well as opinions and debates on topical issues. Papers published cover the scientific and medical aspects of reproductive physiology and pathology, endocrinology, andrology, gonad function, gametogenesis, fertilization, embryo development, implantation, pregnancy, genetics, genetic diagnosis, oncology, infectious disease, surgery, contraception, infertility treatment, psychology, ethics and social issues. The highest scientific and editorial standard is maintained throughout the journal along with a rapid rate of publication.