Effect of phosphate on the second cleavage division of the rat embryo
Authors: H Matsumoto; S Sugawara
Source: Human Reproduction, Volume 13, Number 2, February 1998 , pp. 398-402(5)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Abstract:Development of the rat embryo is arrested at the 2-cell stage in vitro in the presence of inorganic phosphate (Pi). Rat embryos were affected by exposure to 1.19 mM KH<INF>2</INF>PO<INF>4</INF> in modified hamster embryo culture medium-1 at the late 2-cell stage only. When exposure durations were 6 h, embryos whose exposure timings were prior to cleavage had a reduced rate of development to the blastocyst stage (2-8%) when compared with embryos with no exposure to Pi (97%, P < 0.05). When exposure durations were 18 h, all embryos were arrested at the 2- to 4-cell stage. These timings would correspond to the G2 to M phase of the second cell cycle. Maturation-promoting factor (MPF), which is regulated by a phosphorylation cascade, controls cell division, and its kinase activity is necessary in order for the cell to enter the M phase. However, the histone H1 kinase activity levels and the patterns of the state of phosphorylation of cdc2 were the same in blocked and non-blocked embryos. Because MPF was active in blocked embryos, the developmental block in rat 2-cell embryos caused by phosphate was not due to MPF activity or its phosphorylation cascade.Keywords:developmental block/maturation-promoting factor/phosphate/rat preimplantation embryos
- Human Reproduction features full-length, peer-reviewed papers reporting original research, clinical case histories, as well as opinions and debates on topical issues. Papers published cover the scientific and medical aspects of reproductive physiology and pathology, endocrinology, andrology, gonad function, gametogenesis, fertilization, embryo development, implantation, pregnancy, genetics, genetic diagnosis, oncology, infectious disease, surgery, contraception, infertility treatment, psychology, ethics and social issues. The highest scientific and editorial standard is maintained throughout the journal along with a rapid rate of publication.