Review. Origin and mechanisms of non-disjunction in human autosomal trisomies
Source: Human Reproduction, Volume 13, Number 2, February 1998 , pp. 313-319(7)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Abstract:Chromosomal aneuploidy is one of the major causes of pregnancy wastage. In this review we summarize the knowledge about the origin and mechanisms of non-disjunction in human autosomal trisomies 8, 13, 15, 16, 18, and 21, accumulated during the last decade by using DNA polymorphism analysis. Maternal meiosis I non-disjunction is the most important single class, but chromosome-specific patterns exist. For the acrocentric chromosomes 15 and 21, meiosis I errors predominate among the maternal errors, in contrast to trisomy 18 where meiosis II errors predominate. For trisomy 16, virtually all cases are due to maternal meiosis I non-disjunction. Postzygotic (mitotic) non-disjunction constitutes 5-15% of cases of trisomies 15, 18, and 21, whereas for trisomy 8 and trisomy 8 mosaicism the majority of cases are due to mitotic non-disjunction. For paternal non-disjunction of chromosomes 18 and 21, meiosis II or mitotic errors predominate. There is aberrant meiotic recombination associated with maternal meiotic non-disjunction in all trisomies studied in detail so far. Advanced maternal age remains the only well documented risk factor for maternal meiotic non-disjunction, but there is, however, still a surprising lack of understanding of the basic mechanism(s) behind the maternal age effect.
Keywords:autosomal trisomy/chromosomal non-disjunction/meiosis/meiotic recombination/mitosis
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 1998-02-01
- Human Reproduction features full-length, peer-reviewed papers reporting original research, clinical case histories, as well as opinions and debates on topical issues. Papers published cover the scientific and medical aspects of reproductive physiology and pathology, endocrinology, andrology, gonad function, gametogenesis, fertilization, embryo development, implantation, pregnancy, genetics, genetic diagnosis, oncology, infectious disease, surgery, contraception, infertility treatment, psychology, ethics and social issues. The highest scientific and editorial standard is maintained throughout the journal along with a rapid rate of publication.