Is the performance gap between 15‐year‐old immigrant and non‐immigrant students reflected in later outcomes, such as educational attainment? This chapter uses data from Switzerland's and Canada's longitudinal follow‐ups to PISA to evaluate
the extent to which differences in performance in PISA are associated with enrolment in tertiary education by age 24. These two cases highlight the differences and similarities in educational outcomes between two different educational systems and immigration regimes and the factors
associated with these outcomes.