Different immigration and education policies across countries shape the context in which the children of immigrants strive to learn. History, international treaties and domestic immigration policy are all factors which have influenced and continue to influence the immigrant
intake in a particular country. Education systems differ in the way they distribute resources and establish system‐wide and school‐level policies. The following overview of the context in which children of immigrants learn is intended to provide a frame of reference
for the evidence and results discussed in subsequent chapters.