This chapter addresses future labour market needs in new European Union member countries, viewed through the prism of recent and projected demographic, educational and migration developments. A comparison is made between developments in the new member states (NMS
or EU12) and in the old member states (OMS or EU15). As the demography‐education‐migration nexus is too complex an issue to be discussed in detail here, the focus is on aggregate trends rather than microeconomic issues. Data used for analysis
throughout are secondary, drawn from public EU and OECD databases, with migration and no migration options developed by Eurostat and migration statistics by the OECD. Findings are supplemented by the results of several ad hoc case studies and observations from new member
states on general patterns at the national level.