Empowerment processes function through projects and programmes, building capacity and transforming relationships. Donors' responsibility in phasing out funding includes transparency, inclusion, predictability, obligation and sustainability.
"Phasing over" should be an integral part of design and implementation and should continue through local organisations. Sustainability must focus on both technical skills and institutional change in relationships, strengthening social capital, bargaining power
and local government. Donors should work with existing organisations from the beginning, agree a clear exit strategy and emphasise capacity building of local partners and look for synergies among projects, governments and donors. Donors should commit to participatory
knowledge management, systematisation and dissemination of learning.