It is a fact that Russian health outcomes fall well below those of OECD countries. Russian life expectancy at birth averaged 69 years in 2010 (63 years for men and 75 for women) and lags behind the OECD average by slightly more than ten years. The Russian Federation's
life expectancy is also low when compared with OECD countries with similar levels of income per capita ‐ e.g. average life expectancy is about seven years less in the Russian Federation than in Chile and Poland. A similar picture emerges using other concepts of
longevity such as disability‐adjusted life expectancy (DALE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) (see Chapter 3).