Curriculum and standards can reinforce positive impact on children's learning and development. They can: i) ensure even quality across different settings; ii) give guidance to staff on how to enhance children's learning and well‐being;
and iii) inform parents of their children's learning and development. Countries take different approaches in designing curriculum. There is a need to think beyond curriculum dichotomies (e.g., academic‐oriented vs. comprehensive
approaches, staff‐initiated instruction vs. child‐initiated activities, etc.) and consolidate the "added value" of individual approaches. Almost all OECD countries have a framework in place ‐ either curriculum or learning
standards ‐ from age three to compulsory schooling. A growing number of countries and regions have started to address continuous child development from early childhood throughout older ages, such as eight, ten or eighteen.