Abstract:The first two indicators are both replacement rates; that is, the ratio of pension benefits to individual earnings. These are given in gross and net terms, taking account of taxes and contributions paid on earnings and on retirement incomes. The next two indicators are based on pension wealth, again in gross and net terms. Pension wealth, unlike replacement rates, reflects differences in pension ages, indexation of pensions in payment and national life expectancy. The remainder of Part I consists of at a glance analyses of coverage, life expectancy, demographics and pension spending, each of which play a key role in pension modelling.
Document Type: Review Article
Publication date: 2012-01-01