All European countries use a mix of public and private financing of health care, but to differing degrees. Public financing is confined to government revenues in countries where central and/or local governments are primarily responsible for financing health services
directly (e.g. Sweden and the United Kingdom). It consists of both general government revenues and social contributions in countries with social insurance based‐funding (e.g. France and Germany). Private financing,
on the other hand, covers households' out‐of‐pocket payments (either direct or as co‐payments), third‐party payment arrangements effected through various forms of private health insurance, health services such as occupational health
care directly provided by employers, and other direct benefits provided by charities and the like.