Cervical cancer is largely preventable. Screening by regular pelvic exam and pap smears can identify premalignant lesions, which can be effectively treated before the occurrence of the cancer. Regular screening also increases the probability of diagnosing early stages
of the cancer and improving survival. Consequently, the Council of the European Union and the European Commission promote population based cancer screening programmes among member states (European Union, 2003; European Commission, 2008c) and European
countries have instituted screening programmes with specific periodicity and target groups. In addition, promising cancer preventing vaccines have been developed based on the discovery that cervical cancer is caused by sexual transmission of certain forms of the Human Papilloma
Virus. The efficacy and safety of those vaccines is now well established, but debates about cost‐effectiveness and the implications of vaccination programmes for teenagers for a sexually transmitted disease continue in a number of countries (Huang, 2008).