What are the main challenges policy makers across the OECD will need to address in the future? This chapter highlights the key outcomes and trends in the field of sickness and disability during the past 10‐15 years, focusing on four areas: labour market integration
of people with disability and workers with reduced work capacity; financial resources of those people; costs of sickness and disability benefits schemes; and beneficiary dynamics. It concludes that despite reforms and good economic conditions until recently, employment,
unemployment, income and poverty outcomes have not improved for people with disability. Disability benefits have become the main working‐age benefit in most countries and their role as a benefit of last resort is still increasing in many cases. However, outcomes
also suggest that policy can have a large influence on beneficiary developments: Several countries have recently seen a promising turnaround in beneficiary trends.