Patients, providers and payers have a common interest in ensuring that health care systems do not waste resources. Evidence‐based medicine (EBM) and health technology assessment (HTA) can help by focusing on two simple questions: does it
work, and is it worth it? This chapter explores potential efficiency gains that might be achieved by introducing more rational decision making into clinical care and looks at how clinical guidelines and health technology assessment can be used to inform these decisions.
It then reviews how these functions are realised in institutions throughout the OECD.