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OECD countries have made tremendous strides in improving population health over recent decades. Life expectancy at birth has increased, rising on average by ten years between 1960 and 2008. Today, a woman aged 65 can expect to live another 20 years, and
a man an additional 17 years. And although socio‐economic inequalities in health status and access to care remain, reductions in child mortality and gains in population health have continued to improve at a steady pace. These achievements can in part be attributed
to increased incomes and higher levels of education. But a good portion of these gains comes from improvements in health care itself ‐ through technological progress and evidencebased treatment, in particular.